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For many years, scientists and engineers have tried to devise ways of making energy storage systems more efficient. This has manifested in a several ways, including trying to increase the storage capacity of energy storage devices, reducing the size of the devices, developing energy storage devices that can rapidly charge, and even manufacturing hybrid devices that take the best properties of multiple devices into a single device—one example being hybrid battery-ultracapacitor modules. The increased reliance on electronic devices in our daily lives fostered the need for greater efficiencies, smaller sizes, and faster charging rates. So, developers constantly strive to improve these devices and provide more power while maintaining or reducing the size. Many conventional manufacturing methods limit how small and efficient developers can make these with bulk materials, so many academic scientists and industrial manufacturers are now turning to nanomaterials to solve these challenges. The impact of nanotechnology on these devices over the last few years has been so significant that we are now starting to see some commercial energy storage devices on the market that use nanomaterials, many of which are in consumer products. My first and the most important goal about Renewable and Sustainable Energy is to communicate the most interesting and relevant critical thinking in renewable and sustainable energy in order to bring together the research community, the private sector and policy and decision makers. My aim is to share problems, solutions, novel ideas and technologies to support sustainable development, the transition to a low carbon future and achieve my emissions targets as established by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. With population growth and industry development, the global energy demand is increasing rapidly. At present, human lives and industrial productions mainly depend on fossil fuels. However, gaseous emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels lead to air pollution and the greenhouse effect. In addition, the massive consumption of fossil energy will also result in a potential energy crisis. Although clean energy sources, such as wind and nuclear energy, have been widely developed and deployed, no solution can replace fossil fuels independently. Therefore, it is still necessary to further develop renewable energy alternatives to achieve efficient environmental protection and sustainable economic development. In recent years, the microbial fuel cell (MFC) technology has become one of the most representative research hotspots in the bioenergy field. It has been considered a promising solution with the sustainable potential to meet energy demands. The MFC system works depending on the conversion of chemical energy to electrical energy supported by the metabolic activity of certain microbes. As a typical bio electro chemical system, the MFC consists of an anode region and a cathode region separated by a proton exchange membrane (PEM). The electricity generation of MFCs relies on biological oxidation and oxygen reduction occurring in the anode and cathode regions, respectively. In the anode region, microbes act as biocatalysts to decompose substrates for the generation of electrons and protons through cellular respiration. These electrons transported through the external circuit and protons transported through the PEM result in a reduction reaction with oxygen to generate water in the cathode region. This energy generation process has many advantages, such as mild production conditions, simple operations, and a wide range of biocatalyst sources. Besides all above, solar energy source is my next goal to protect our planet. Among all the benefits of solar panels, the most important thing is that solar energy is a truly renewable energy source. It can be harnessed in all areas of the world and is available every day. We cannot run out of solar energy, unlike some of the other sources of energy. Solar energy will be accessible as long as we have the sun, therefore sunlight will be available to us for at least 5 billion years when according to scientists the sun is going to die. Technology in the solar power industry is constantly advancing and improvements will intensify in the future. Innovations in quantum physics and nanotechnology can potentially increase the effectiveness of solar panels and double, or even triple, the electrical input of the solar power systems.